电气工程学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (1): 41-45.doi: 10.11985/2019.01.008

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大电流真空电弧阳极熔蚀过程的数值仿真与分析

李国明   

  1. 东北电力大学电气工程学院 吉林 132000
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-14 出版日期:2019-03-25 发布日期:2019-11-01
  • 作者简介:李国明,男,1992年生,硕士研究生,从事真空电弧理论及其应用方面的研究。E-mail:806111928 @qq.com

Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Anode Erosion Process Under High-Current Vacuum Arcs

LI Guoming   

  1. College of Electrical Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132000 China
  • Received:2018-09-14 Online:2019-03-25 Published:2019-11-01

摘要:

真空断路器在开断大电流时,阳极活动对于断路器的成功开断具有重要影响。在大电流电弧的作用下,阳极表面温度逐渐升高,当温度达到阳极材料熔点时,阳极表面开始熔化,并形成熔池。熔池蒸发产生的金属蒸气会进入真空断路器的触头间隙,可能使电弧重燃,从而导致开断失败。对真空断路器建立了二维的流体模型和传热模型,研究了在真空电弧作用下的阳极熔蚀现象、相变过程以及阳极温度随时间的变化规律。所用模型考虑了电弧中离子和电子对阳极的传热和阳极蒸发时阳极损失的热量,并采用经典Stefan公式跟踪了熔化前沿,仿真获得了阳极相变过程以及温度分布规律,为准确评估断路器开断能力提供了理论依据。

关键词: 真空断路器, 真空电弧, 阳极熔蚀, 表面温度

Abstract:

Anode activity has important influence on the vacuum interrupter when the vacuum interrupter breaks large current.Under the action of large current arc, the anode surface temperature gradually increases. When the temperature reaches the anode material melting point, the anode surface begins to melt and forming a molten pool. The evaporation of metal vapor from the molten pool will enter the contact gap of the vacuum interrupter, possibly reigniting the arc again, thus causing the failure of breaking.In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model and a heat transfer model for vacuum interrupter are established. The phenomena of anode erosion, phase change and the change of anode temperature with time are studied. The heat transfer of ions and electrons to the anode and the loss of anode in the arc are taken into account, and the melting front is tracked by using Stefan function. The process of anode phase transition and temperature distribution are simulated to provide theoretical basis for the accurate evaluation of interrupter breaking ability.

Key words: Vacuum interrupter, vacuum arc, anode erosion, surface temperature

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